Prior to the mid-’60s, the International Paper plant in North Tonawanda received logs by ship from Canada to make paper. The plant was converted to receive and stockpile woodchips by rail, and the bulk of the chips came off the CN at Niagara Falls. I’m planning to build some CN woodchip cars made from repurposed boxcars at some point in the future, but until I do, I’m relying on a small fleet of unconverted CN 10’0″ boxcars. These cars still have their roofs intact, which was, apparently, a prototypical practice. The chips would be blown in like grain, and vacuumed out of the cars at the plant.